Friday, April 1, 2011

COMPUTER ETHICS AND LEGAL ISSUES


Define Computer Ethics, Code of Ethics, Intellectual Property, Privacy, Computer Crime and Cyber Law

  • Computer ethics is a system of moral standards or values used as a guideline for computer users.
  • Code of ethics are guidelines in ICT that help determine whether a specific computer action is ethical or unethical.
  • Intellectual Property refers to works created by inventors, authors and artists.
  • Privacy refers to the right of individuals and companies to deny or restrict and collection and used of information about them.
  • Computer Crime is any illegal acts involving computers.
  • Cyber law refers to any laws relating to protecting the Internet and other online communication technologies

Differentiate between ethics and law

Ethics
Law
As a guideline to computer users

As a rule to control computer users.


Ethical behavior is judged by moral standards.


To prevent misuse of computers
Computer users are free to follow or ignore the code of ethics.
Computer users must follow the regulations and law.
No punishment for anyone who
violates ethics.
Penalties , Imprisonments and otherPUNISHMENTS.
Universal, can be applied anywhere,


all over the world.


Depend on country and state where the crime is committed
Not following ethics are called immoral
Not obeying laws are called crime

                      State the need for intelectual property laws

· Copyrights for materials
· Trademarks for brand identity
· Patents for inventions
· Design for product appearanc

                     Ways to protect privacy

(a) Privacy law
The privacy laws in Malaysia :
Security Services to review the security policy
Security Management to protect the resources
Security Mechanism to implement the required security services
Security Objects, the important entities within the system
Environment
(b) Utilities software
Install anti-spam program, firewall, anti-spyware and antivirus
Purchase goods with cash rather than credit card
Clear your history file when you are finished browsing
Fill in only necessary information on warranty and registration form.

Authentication and Verification technologies

Authentication is a process where users verify their identity. Authentication deals with the problem of determining whether a user should be allowed access to a particular system.

METHODS OF AUTHENTICATION


Biometric device is a device that translates personal characteristics into a digital code that is compared with a digital code stored in the database.





Callback system refers to the checking system that authenticates the user






Verification is the act of proving or disproving the correctness of a system with respect to a certain formal specification

METHODS OF VERIFICATION

User identification refers to the process of validating the user.

Possessed object refers to something the user has such as identification card, security token and cell phone

                     CONTROVERSIAL CONTENTS AND CONTROL


Effect of controversial contents (PORNOGRAPHY and SLANDER) on society :


Pornography


Pornography is any form of media or material (like books, video or photos) that show erotic behaviour and intended to cause sexual excitement. The effects of pornography on society are :
  • Can lead to criminal acts such as exploitation of women.
  • Can lead to sexual addiction.
  • Can develop lower moral values towards other people.
  • Can erode good religious, cultural, behaviours and beliefs.

Slander

Slander is a false spoken statements about someone, intended to damage his or her reputation. The effects of slander on society are :
  • Can develop society that disregards on honesty and truth
  • Can lead to bad habits of spreading rumors and untruth
  • Can cause people to have negative attitudes towards another person.

THE PROCESS OF INTERNET FILTERING

INTERNET FILTERING
It is our responsibility to ensure that the teenagers are protected from these corruptions of the mind by filtering access to the Internet.Internet filtering is a process that prevents or blocks access to certain materials on the Internet.
What is Internet filtering?
Internet filtering is a process that prevents or blocks access to certain materials on the Internet. Filtering is most commonly used to prevent children from accessing inappropriate material and to keep employees productive on the Internet.
CONTROLLING ACCESS TO THE INTERNET
The current preferred method of choice to limit access on the Internet is to filter content either by:
· keyword blocking
· site blocking
· web rating systems
These methods require software to be installed at a client of server level.
KEYWORD BLOCKING
One of the strategies is by using the keyword blocking method. This method uses a list of banned words or objectionable terms.
As the page is downloading, the filter searches for any of these words. If found, it will block the page completely, stop downloading the page, block the banned words and even shut down the browser.
SITE BLOCKING
  • software company maintains a list of ‘dubious Internet sites’
  • the software prevents access to any sites on this list
  • ‘denial lists’ regularly updated
  • some software provides control over what categories of information you block
  • Who decides what goes on the ‘denial list’ and what criteria are they using?
  • can you keep track of the whole of the Internet?
  • filters can use both site blocking and word blocking
WEB RATING SYSTEMS
Web sites are rated in terms of nudity, sex, violence and language. The Recreational Software Advisory Council (RSACI) is responsible for the rating of the websites on the content on the internet.
· ratings done either by the web page author or by the independent bureau.
· browsers set to only accept pages with certain levels of ratings.

CYBER LAW

What is Cyber Law?
Cyber law refers to any laws relating to protecting the Internet and other online communication technologies.


NEEDS FOR CYBER LAW

These concerns and issues clearly indicate why cyber laws are needed in online activities.


THE CYBER LAW ACTS IN MALAYSIA

The Malaysian Government has already passed several cyber laws to control and reduce the Internet abuse. These cyber laws include:

• Digital Signature Act 1997

• Computer Crimes Act 1997

• Telemedicine Act 1997

• Communications and Multimedia Act 1998


DIGITAL SIGNATURE ACT 1997

The Digital Signature Act 1997 secures electronic communications especially on the Internet. Digital Signature is an identity verification standard that uses encryption techniques to protect against e-mail forgery. The encrypted code consists of the user’s name and a hash of all the parts of the message.


COMPUTER CRIMES ACT 1997

The Computer Crimes Act 1997 gives protection against the misuses of computers and computer criminal activities such as unauthorised use of programmes, illegal transmission of data or messages over computers and hacking and cracking of computer systems and networks. By implementing the Computer Crimes Act 1997, users can protect their rights to privacy and build trust in the computer system. At the same time, the government can have control at a certain level over cyberspace to reduce cyber crime activities.


TELEMEDICINE ACT 1997

The Telemedicine Act 1997 ensures that only qualified medical practitioners can practice telemedicine and that their patient's rights and interests are protected.


These act provides the future development and delivery of healthcare in Malaysia.


COMMUNICATIONS AND MULTIMEDIA ACT 1998

The implementation of Communication and Telecommunication Act 1998 ensures that information is secure, the network is reliable and the service is affordable all over Malaysia.


This Act also ensures high level of user's confidence in the information and communication technology industry.


COMPUTER CRIMES

A computer crime is defined as any criminal activity that is related to the use of computers. These activities include computer fraud, copyright infringement, computer theft and computer attack.

COMPUTER FRAUD

Computer fraud is the crime obtaining money by deceiving people through the use of computers.There are many forms of computer frauds which include:-

  1. e-mail hoaxes(an attempt to make people believe something that is not true)
  2. Program fraud
  3. investment schemes
  4. sales promotions
  5. claim of expertise on certain fields

COPYRIGHT INFRINGEMENT

Copyright infringement is defined as a violation of the rights secured by a copyright. Copyright infringement involves illegal copy or reproduction of copyrights material by the black market group. The open commercial sale of pirated item is also illegal.
Copyright is the legal right to be only producer or seller of book,song and film - Selling pirates software.

COMPUTER THEFT
Computer theft is defined as the unauthorized use of another person’s property with the intention to deny the owner the rightful possession of that property or its use.
Examples of computer theft include:

  1. transfer of payments to the wrong accounts
  2. tap into data transmission lines on database at no cost
  3. divert goods to the wrong destination

COMPUTER ATTACK

Computer attack may be defined as any activities taken to disrupt the equipment of computer systems, change processing control or corrupt stored data.
Computer attack can be in the forms of:

  1. physical attack that disrupt the computer facility or its transmission lines.
  2. an electronic attack that uses the power of electromagnetic energy to overload computer circuitry.
  3. a computer network attack that uses a malicious code to exploit a weakness in software, or in the computer security practices of a computer user

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